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Fermentation Systems for Food and Feed Ingredients

Fermentation Systems for Food and Feed Ingredients

Overview

Producers of bulk food and feed ingredients such as amino acids, organic acids, and vitamins use fermentation as the basis of their production. Today’s modern industrial biotechnology processes use carefully selected and purified microbial cell cultures to produce an ever-increasing variety of ingredients and increase productivity.

 

During fermentation, the microorganisms multiply in industrial bioreactors, utilizing a carbohydrate source for energy. The course of microbial growth progresses under well-controlled conditions of aeration, agitation rate, temperature, pH and other parameters. Fermentation can last from a few hours to several days. The metabolic end products produced by the microorganisms are the basis for many ingredients used today.

 

After fermentation, important steps of extracting and purifying the metabolites of interest from the cell mass follow. The first step is primary broth clarification, to remove the spent cells and other suspended solids from the fermenter contents. Primary broth clarification is carried out by a variety of methods ranging from centrifugation to filtration. Today’s ingredient manufacturers are looking for the most cost-effective clarification solutions that will provide the highest product quality and maximum yield, while ensuring process safety and minimizing waste volumes.

 

 

The Challenge

A large producer of feed additives and vitamins needed technology to manufacture a variety of products in an enclosed system. Due to changing market conditions, this producer desired a degree of flexibility in operation matched to the particular product type being manufactured. The fermentation broth ranged, on average, from 20 to 25% spin solids, a relatively high solids load. Varying feed stream characteristics and throughput conditions required additional system flexibility.

 

Maximum separation efficiency of the desirable components of the fermenter broth was required to achieve very high and constant downstream fluid quality. The chosen clarification technology needed to achieve very high Volumetric Concentration Factors (VCF) in order to maximize yield. The system of choice needed to be automated, reliable, simple to operate, and as robust as possible against power failures and process upsets.

 

The Solution

Membralox® ceramic crossflow technology was chosen for this new, state of the art facility for its ability to reliably deliver the highest filtrate quality regardless of broth characteristics. Unlike centrifugation, where cell size and density as well as fluid viscosity influence the separation efficiency, membrane separation offers an absolute physical barrier that will always provide the optimum separation.

 

Additionally, ceramic technology provided a solution which could operate without incurring the storage, handling and waste typical of filter aid-based precoat technology. An additional advantage of this solution is the ability to further use the product retentate stream, for example by drying it for use as animal feed.

 

Large diameter membrane channels were selected to handle the high feed spin solids. This resulted in the highest possible VCF and a retentate concentration in excess of 45%. To further maximize recovery, diafiltration was used and resulted in an additional increase in the final yield of over 25%. Initial pilot testing done on a small scale system determined the proper membrane pore size and process parameters for scale-up. During this first phase Pall® Scientific Laboratory Services (SLS) personnel collaborated with the customer to optimize the process parameters and provide in-depth technical support. Even after system commissioning, the pilot unit continues to be used for testing new bacteria strains and new fermentation techniques, which has allowed continuous new product development and improvement.

 

Based on successful piloting results, Pall offered over 2,200 m2 of ultrafiltration membrane area in HCB module design. The Membralox HCB module range, with its unique hexagonal membrane shape, is able to obtain an extremely high membrane packing density up to 285 m2 / m3, thus significantly reducing filtration system costs.

 

Three systems were ordered over three distinct phases to suit the continuously increasing production capacity requirements of this plant. The systems were engineered to provide maximum flexibility, high yield and simple process control. The process is based on a fed batch concept with batch diafiltration at constant volume. This concept allows high average flux, low membrane surface area and high efficiency diafiltration. Operators are able to modify setpoints, such as VCF, flux, and diafiltration ratio to accommodate variable feed quality and periodically varying volumetric throughputs. Single loops can also be operated independently of each other, in case of mechanical upsets, such that production can still proceed on a limited basis. Membralox ceramic filtration modules consist of porous ceramic membrane elements, sealed in stainless steel housings with polymeric gaskets. Key features include:

 

  • 3, 4 and 6 mm ID feed channel sizes available in various module configurations for handling a wide range of feed streams, and allowing optimum system configuration Extremely robust elements using an ultra-pure underlying alpha alumina support structure, with 12 µm pore size and 30 % porosity, leading to wide chemical compatibility, high flux and suitability for continuous high temperature operation
  • Various membrane pore sizes for microfiltration and ultrafiltration

 

In crossflow filtration, the feed stream moves parallel to the membrane filtration surface and purified liquid passes through the membrane. The parallel flow of the feed stream, combined with the boundary layer turbulence created by the crossflow velocity, continuously sweeps away particles and other substances which would otherwise build up on the membrane surface. As a result, crossflow filters routinely maintain higher permeate rates longer than conventional dead-end filters. Crossflow technology offers the ideal solution for handling high solids load applications.

 

The Benefits

This manufacturer required a cost-effective and flexible system capable of achieving high permeate quality and reliable system operation. The Membralox system offered the following:

 

  • Process flexibility due to batch system configuration
  • High product recovery due to high solids handling capability and use of diafiltration Reduced cost and increased efficiency of downstream processes due to high filtrate quality, as compared to centrifuge and precoat technologies
  • Reduced process maintenance and waste due to absence of filter aids
  • Extremely long life due to ceramic element construction
  • Reduced operator exposure and maximum product protection due to a fully enclosed design
  • Process simplicity, reliability and safety due to system automation
  • Space savings due to compact system footprint

 

About Pall Corporation

Pall Corporation is the largest and most diverse filtration, separation, and purification company in the world. Pall serves the food and beverage industries with advanced membrane filtration technology and systems engineered for reliability and cost-effectiveness. Our systems are easy to install, simple to use, and satisfy a wide range of filtration requirements. Our Total Fluid Managementsm approach offers customers solutions to address the needs of an entire process, encompassing filtration products, systems, services, and training. 

TFF Technology Increases Yield and Reduces Waste Streams

Up to 80% of the extract contained in the surplus yeast that collects at the bottom of tanks after fermentation and maturation can now be recovered rather than disposed of. Beer can be recovered and blended back into the brewing process at a ratio of up to 5% without negatively influencing the beer quality, increasing the yield and reducing the total beer volume needing to be produced. This represents a lower CO2 footprint, reduced water usage, and a lowering of production costs, plus the minimized waste stream reduces disposal costs and ensures a lower level of BOD’s and COD’s are returned back into the environment.
Up to 80% of the extract contained in the surplus yeast that collects at the bottom of tanks after fermentation and maturation can now be recovered rather than disposed of. Beer can be recovered and blended back into the brewing process at a ratio of up to 5% without negatively influencing the beer quality, increasing the yield and reducing the total beer volume needing to be produced. This represents a lower CO2 footprint, reduced water usage, and a lowering of production costs, plus the minimized waste stream reduces disposal costs and ensures a lower level of BOD’s and COD’s are returned back into the environment.
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Craft Brewery Preserves Image and Limits Losses

Although beer is restrictive to bacterial growth due to its low pH, ethanol concentration, and low oxygen content, the presence of certain beer spoilage bacteria including Lactobacillus, Pediococcus, Pectinatus, and Megasphaera can generate off-flavors, turbidity and acidity. Such quality deficiencies render the product unacceptable and often result in high economic losses and negative brand image. Throughout the production process, undesirable microbial contamination must be prevented to achieve the required final beer quality. Such contamination may originate from ingredients (including yeast), air and water utilities coming into contact with the product, and the environment.
Although beer is restrictive to bacterial growth due to its low pH, ethanol concentration, and low oxygen content, the presence of certain beer spoilage bacteria including Lactobacillus, Pediococcus, Pectinatus, and Megasphaera can generate off-flavors, turbidity and acidity. Such quality deficiencies render the product unacceptable and often result in high economic losses and negative brand image. Throughout the production process, undesirable microbial contamination must be prevented to achieve the required final beer quality. Such contamination may originate from ingredients (including yeast), air and water utilities coming into contact with the product, and the environment.
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Pall Aria™ System Rescues Bottled Spring Water Producer from Plant Closure

Spring water is a valuable natural resource, which requires good purification treatment before appearing on grocery store shelves as high purity, visually pleasing bottled product. Filtration is a key process step required to achieve consistently high product quality. The costs associated with filtration may be substantial, depending on source water quality. Disposable filters are a technically sound solution but their use may become economically unsustainable in the face of difficult or variable quality source water.
Spring water is a valuable natural resource, which requires good purification treatment before appearing on grocery store shelves as high purity, visually pleasing bottled product. Filtration is a key process step required to achieve consistently high product quality. The costs associated with filtration may be substantial, depending on source water quality. Disposable filters are a technically sound solution but their use may become economically unsustainable in the face of difficult or variable quality source water.
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Microflow System Offers 10 Months Payback in Cheese Brine Purification

Salting by immersion in brine is used for many varieties of cheese worldwide. During repeated immersions fat, curd particles and microorganisms from the cheese plus the accumulation of proteins and other components builds up a nutrient-rich environment for the salt resistant microorganisms. Reused brine may then become a reservoir of unwanted microorganisms, such as gas- or pigmentproducing bacteria, yeast and mold, or salt resistant pathogens, cross-contaminating the cheese and impacting their quality. Good control of the brine and the brining operation is essential to ensure consistent daily production. Additionally, brine disposal is coming under increasing focus. High disposal costs or volume limitations in specific areas are driving the demand for greater brine reuse, to generate operating cost savings and minimize the plant environmental footprint.
Salting by immersion in brine is used for many varieties of cheese worldwide. During repeated immersions fat, curd particles and microorganisms from the cheese plus the accumulation of proteins and other components builds up a nutrient-rich environment for the salt resistant microorganisms. Reused brine may then become a reservoir of unwanted microorganisms, such as gas- or pigmentproducing bacteria, yeast and mold, or salt resistant pathogens, cross-contaminating the cheese and impacting their quality. Good control of the brine and the brining operation is essential to ensure consistent daily production. Additionally, brine disposal is coming under increasing focus. High disposal costs or volume limitations in specific areas are driving the demand for greater brine reuse, to generate operating cost savings and minimize the plant environmental footprint.
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Distillers Improve Quality While Reducing Operating Costs with SUPRApak™ Technology

Filtration of spirits can be a challenging task. It is essential to remove contaminants that may cause turbidity while retaining the quality enhancing components in the product. Filter sheets are the traditional method for achieving this delicate balance. Sheets are comprised of a unique matrix of materials that provide an excellent combination of adsorption and depth filtration, making them an ideal solution for turbidity reduction and haze removal in spirits. Filter sheets are available in multiple grades to cover a wide range of applications from filtration of cordials to chill haze reduction in brown spirits to particle removal in white spirits. Additionally many plate and frame filter units have the flexibility to add or remove sheets to suit the batch size, flow rate or the specific product to be filtered.
Filtration of spirits can be a challenging task. It is essential to remove contaminants that may cause turbidity while retaining the quality enhancing components in the product. Filter sheets are the traditional method for achieving this delicate balance. Sheets are comprised of a unique matrix of materials that provide an excellent combination of adsorption and depth filtration, making them an ideal solution for turbidity reduction and haze removal in spirits. Filter sheets are available in multiple grades to cover a wide range of applications from filtration of cordials to chill haze reduction in brown spirits to particle removal in white spirits. Additionally many plate and frame filter units have the flexibility to add or remove sheets to suit the batch size, flow rate or the specific product to be filtered.
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Fermentation Broth Clarification Systems for Food and Feed Ingredients Manufacturing

Producers of bulk food and feed ingredients such as amino acids, organic acids, and vitamins use fermentation as the basis of their production. Today’s modern industrial biotechnology processes use carefully selected and purified microbial cell cultures to produce an ever-increasing variety of ingredients and increase productivity. During fermentation, the microorganisms multiply in industrial bioreactors, utilizing a carbohydrate source for energy. The course of microbial growth progresses under well-controlled conditions of aeration, agitation rate, temperature, pH and other parameters. Fermentation can last from a few hours to several days. The metabolic end products produced by the microorganisms are the basis for many ingredients used today.
Producers of bulk food and feed ingredients such as amino acids, organic acids, and vitamins use fermentation as the basis of their production. Today’s modern industrial biotechnology processes use carefully selected and purified microbial cell cultures to produce an ever-increasing variety of ingredients and increase productivity. During fermentation, the microorganisms multiply in industrial bioreactors, utilizing a carbohydrate source for energy. The course of microbial growth progresses under well-controlled conditions of aeration, agitation rate, temperature, pH and other parameters. Fermentation can last from a few hours to several days. The metabolic end products produced by the microorganisms are the basis for many ingredients used today.
詳細はこちら

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Filtration is a key operation in modern cider production to deliver visually bright and shelf stable product. Traditionally, cider clarification has been performed with diatomaceous earth or sheet based filtration technologies. However, with more favorable economics, easier operation and lower waste volumes, crossflow filtration systems like Pall’s Oenoflow XL system have become more widely adopted over the past decade.
Filtration is a key operation in modern cider production to deliver visually bright and shelf stable product. Traditionally, cider clarification has been performed with diatomaceous earth or sheet based filtration technologies. However, with more favorable economics, easier operation and lower waste volumes, crossflow filtration systems like Pall’s Oenoflow XL system have become more widely adopted over the past decade.
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Ready to drink tea, fruit juices and drinks, carbonated soft drinks, and other beverages are subject to spoilage due to the presence of heatresistant, acidophilic bacterial spores (TAB). The thermoacidophilic spores may originate either from exposure to agricultural raw materials such as in fruit juice production, or from contamination in the beverage ingredients, such as sweeteners, juice and tea concentrates, or flavors, essences, and colors from natural extracts.
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Cross-flow Lees Filter Experience Delivers Efficiency and Economy at Yalumba

Recovery of wine from lees represents one of the most challenging forms of filtration faced by wineries. The high concentration and variability of the suspended solids limit the suitable filtration technologies, while strict environmental regulations and sustainability programs are increasing pressure to reduce waste volumes. Traditionally, lees filtration is performed with filter aid based systems like rotary vacuum drum (RVD) or chamber press filters. While these systems typically have good volumetric recovery of the wine from the solids, there are some inherent drawbacks that can affect wine quality. The open design allows for oxygen pick-up and the recovered wine often needs further processing. The wine is typically downgraded in value and used in blends instead of added back to the original batch.
Recovery of wine from lees represents one of the most challenging forms of filtration faced by wineries. The high concentration and variability of the suspended solids limit the suitable filtration technologies, while strict environmental regulations and sustainability programs are increasing pressure to reduce waste volumes. Traditionally, lees filtration is performed with filter aid based systems like rotary vacuum drum (RVD) or chamber press filters. While these systems typically have good volumetric recovery of the wine from the solids, there are some inherent drawbacks that can affect wine quality. The open design allows for oxygen pick-up and the recovered wine often needs further processing. The wine is typically downgraded in value and used in blends instead of added back to the original batch.
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